Onny Nur Pratama
Onny Nur Pratama (1994) is a musician and researcher (ethnomusicologist) who focuses on world music studies, especially archipelago music. He conducts research of Bangka dambus musical instruments that focus on intramusical and extramusical studies of dambus, especially in the study of musical, historical, social, folklore, the essence of traditional musical instruments. In 2015 he obtained bachelor of Arts from the Indonesian Institute of Arts Yogyakarta and in 2019 master of Arts from the Postgraduate Indonesian Art Institute of Yogyakarta.
Dambus is one of the art products (traditional music) originating from the Local Genius of Bangka, that is, people from the Land based people or people of Mount. Land based people were identified as the first inhabitants to inhabit and dominate on the island of Bangka in the past. Land based people are migrations from an Austronesian or Deutro Malay family, namely Young Malay. The dambus art in its ensemble consisted of tawak-tawak musical instruments, a larger main drum, anek drum that was smaller in size, a tambourine and a gong. The dambus musical instrument in pre-Islamic times was known as the “stringed musical instrument”, as time went on this art experienced an intramusical and extramusical adaptive process from the era of animism and dynamism to an era after Islamic teachings entered the archipelago. The Islamization process after the king era of Palembang Darussalam and the assimilation of four major ethnic groups on the island of Bangka namely China, Malay, Land based people and Sea based people had a significant impact on the development of art on Bangka island, especially the dambus musical instrument so that it became an instrument with an identical form to nuance Islamic musical instruments are animal shaped in contrast to Malay culture which is identical to Islamic teachings. In general, people often think the dambus and gambus arab (oud) are the same. In general, these two musical instruments are included in one type, namely stringed musical instruments, however, dambus Bangka and gambus have some significant differences, especially in the form of musical instruments, techniques and patterns of play, as well as different historical backgrounds. There is one uniqueness of the dambus musical instrument, namely the head of the musical instrument is shaped like a deer animal. Deer animals are important animals for the Bangka community so they have a special philosophy and meaning in their use so that they are used as representations on dambus instruments.
Keywords: Dambus, Gambus, Land based people, deer animals, Islamization